Monday, February 24, 2020

Marketing Strategy for new Cereal Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Marketing Strategy for new Cereal - Essay Example Also, having regard to the virtual dominance of the breakfast cereals market by five major companies, attention is focussed on special characteristics of the product which could ensure some market penetration. New Product 3 Manufacture and Marketing of a New Breakfast Cereal in Australia Introduction The product is a new breakfast cereal called â€Å"GoodHealth†, and it differs from those already on the market in two important respects: its ability to remain crisp for longer when milk is added, and its lower salt content (Oakenfull, 2009). The product will be manufactured to complement the existing range of food products already produced by â€Å"PolyFoods†, a small company founded in 2001 and located in the outskirts of Canberra. The first intention is to market GoodHealth throughout Australia, and then to expand into the global marketplace. In order to achieve this aim attention will be given to exploiting modern marketing theories as they apply to the appropriate mac ro-environment outside the organisation. The application of marketing theory The aim of marketing is to sell the product and over the years a number of theories have been developed to identify the factors which are necessary for the construction and implementation of an effective marketing strategy. ... y of Marketing† that the central feature is the ‘Transaction of buying and selling’ based on the perceived ‘value’ of the product by the buyer. This perception, which is underpinned by ‘brand image’ is subject to such fluctuations as needs, financial situation, experience and taste. Linn (2010) offers a dual model of the process ‘Price Asked < Perceived Value’ and states that â€Å"The condition for the transaction being performed is, in principle, that the buyer values the product to equal or New Product 4 more than the price asked† (Linn, 2010). It is now appropriate to consider the six main macro-environments which will affect the target market for the product and consequently hte company’s product strategy. Analysis of the macro-environment Demographic In the late 1990s 49% of Americans ate cereals at breakfast – almost 20% more than any other product or combination (Topher, 1997). Statistics gathered in Australia at about the same time (AUSSTATS, 1999) found that over 65% of the population ate cereals daily, although there was no clear breakdown into easily identifiable products. However, the figures showed that children in the age range 2-15 years consumed more breakfast cereals – as did adults over 45 years – than the age group 16-44 years. These trends indicated some marketing target areas. Firstly the adolescent group, and the over 65s who generally preferred ‘something warming’ such as porridge. For the former it is essential to stress that breakfast cereals are not just nourishing but ‘cool’ and for the latter it is important to stress that the added vitamins and nutritional properties of breakfast cereals, and â€Å"GoodHealth† in particular can contribute to wellbeing and delay the onset of various diseases such as cancer of

Saturday, February 8, 2020

Target Corporation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Target Corporation - Essay Example The full name of the retail store known as Target is Target Corporation. This name came to be known in 1962. Target Corporation has a main headquarters located in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The main headquarters is located right downtown. Other smaller offices are also located in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The state of Arizona is home to the financial headquarters for Target Corporation. Target Corporation also has two banks that are located in Sioux Falls, North Dakota and Salt Lake City, Utah (Target2011). These many different headquarters allow for target to provide appropriate customer service and financing. Target Corporation was not always known as the Target that is today. The first Target store was opened in the 1900’s and named Good fellows. Good fellows produced dry goods. The store was located in downtown Minneapolis. It wasn’t long before the company became known as the Dayton Company. Later in the 1960’s the first Target store was opened. The store was loc ated in Roseville, Minnesota. The store quickly became popular and expanded to the now known Target Corporation. This rapid growth came from a strong founder. The founder of Target Corporation is George Dayton. George Dayton was born in 1857. George was born in New York. Throughout his career he stumbled upon a retail store that his bank had foreclosed on (Soylent Communications 2011). This business venture was the start of many other additions. George acquired more popular retail stores such as Mervyns, Hudson’s and Marshall Fields. These many retail mergers led to the current Target Corporation. These mergers also proved the strength that Target Corporation has. George’s determination allowed him to become a successful business man and build Target Corporation to what it is today. The original business of Target Corporation was a Dry Goods retail store. It wasn’t long before the Good Fellow Dry Good’s Company became known as one of the number one suppli ers of retail goods. Products originally sold were retail items like other department stores. Target Corporation sells various products. Products range from children’s clothing, canned goods, jewelry and electronics. Target Corporation is a one stop shop for popular products. Target Corporations owns a majority of manufacturing facilities that help keep the price of goods low. The Target Corporation has a history as many different companies. Target Corporation is responsible for the Merger of many popular retail chains. In 1956, Target Corporation was responsible for the very first shopping center that had two different shopping levels. This new shopping center became the new face of shopping centers in America. Soon after Target Corporations two story shopping center, many similar shopping centers such as malls were spreading throughout the country. The target store was the first of its kind. The Target store of 1962 was able to offer discounted retail items. Offering discou nted items made Target a popular retail chain. The 1960’s and 1970’s were huge decades for Target Corporation. During this time, there were large mergers and the announcement of Target Corporations entering into the stock market. Another merger with Marshall Field’s later took place in the 1990’s. This final merger allowed Target Corporation to become huge generating over $30 billion dollars (Target2011). The success of Target stores led to the sale of Marshall Field’

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

The American Civil War Essay Example for Free

The American Civil War Essay The American Civil War has also been called the War Between the States or the War of Rebellion or the War for Southern Independence. It was a clash between the United States of America or the Union and the Confederate States of America or the Confederacy. The Civil War was fought from 1861 to 1865. There were many reasons for the outbreak of this Civil War such as States’ rights and slavery. The principle cause for this War was purely economic. The Southern states had always tried to become independent because of the fact that the people and the state were becoming wealthier due to extensive use of slave labor. These states feared a drastic reduction in their wealth if slavery were to be abolished (Guisepi, 2002). Subsequent to the election of Abraham Lincoln as president of the United States, the South became apprehensive as they felt that slavery would be abolished, accordingly they started the civil war. On the 12th of April, 1861 the Confederate army in Charleston, S. C. , started firing on Fort Sumter, which was held by the Union forces. This marked the commencement of hostilities between the North and the South. The prima facie objective of the South was to gain independence and that of the North was to preserve the integrity of the Union. In the year 1862, Abraham Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation and this constituted a major cause for the war. If the North emerged victorious then slavery would be abolished and if the South had won the war then slavery would have been protected in all the Confederate states (Guisepi, 2002). Economic disparities had been on the increase during the early nineteenth century. More than fifty seven per cent of cotton exports from the US had originated in the South and this was mainly due to the employment of slave labor. However, the North had acquired its wealth by establishing industries and as such the inhabitants of the North were opposed to slave labor. In order to cope with the demand for labor, the North encouraged immigration. Therefore, there were a large number of European immigrants who worked as laborers in industries and in the construction of railways in the North. The South was a laggard as far as industrialization was concerned and this forced them to import manufactured goods from the North. The southern states opposed the overwhelming taxes and tariffs on imported goods, which was the main source of revenue for the Federal government. The Federal government was unwilling to reduce the taxes since it had to support various welfare measures and provide infrastructure like roads. This led to a further disagreement between the North and the South (Gallagher, 2005 ). Initially, in the republic there were sectional differences between the regions, which were overlooked, owing to the fact that the vast distances rendered communication difficult if not impossible. The Northerners favored a central government in order to enable them to construct railroads, roads, and infrastructure, protect complex trade interests and thereby control the national currency. The Southerners, on the other hand, were not in favor of forming a central government since their dependence on the Federal government was much lesser. They also believed that a central government would prevent them from practicing slavery. The US Constitution prohibits the federal government from interfering with slavery within the states. Opponents of slavery in the Northern states were limited to restricting the use of slaves and the spreading of slavery to other regions. This is borne out by the fact that in 1820, Missouri was admitted to the Union as a slave state whereas Maine was admitted as a free state to maintain the balance in the Senate (Gallagher, 2005 ). In 1857, the Supreme Court of the United States added fuel to fire of mounting tensions by its judgment in the case of Dred Scott. In that case Scott a Missouri slave sought freedom on the basis that his master had taken him to live in a free state. The Court opined that Negroes were not citizens of the United States and that accordingly Scott could not approach the Court as he had no rights to do so. Moreover, the Supreme Court ruled that the US laws prohibiting slavery were unconstitutional. Subsequently, on the 16th of October 1859, John Brown a convict of the Pottawatomie massacre raided the Harpers Ferry, VA, in order to free the slaves and to encourage them to start a guerrilla war against the whites in the South. This incident shook the Southerners as they felt that it was the beginning of organized Northern efforts to abolish slavery (Guisepi, 2002). With the election of Abraham Lincoln as the President of the Union, the Southerners seriously contemplated secession from the Union and South Carolina was the first state to secede from the Union. Other Southern states quickly withdrew from the Union and these secessionists occupied many southern forts. The Artillery of the Confederates opened fire on Fort Sumter and this marked the beginning of the war (Guisepi, 2002). The Civil War had the dubious distinction of resolving the issue of secession permanently as has been borne out by the fact that since 1861, there have been no attempts by the states of the Union to secede. Another major change wrought by the Civil War was the abolition of slavery, subsequent to the Emancipation Proclamation announced by Lincoln. However, the Civil War was unable to make the blacks the equals of the whites and it was also unsuccessful in emotionally reuniting the North and the South, as had been hoped by Abraham Lincoln. References Gallagher, G. (2005 ). American Civil War. Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2006 [DVD] . Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation. Guisepi, R. (2002). American Civil War. Retrieved June 23, 2007, from http://history-world. org/american_civil_war. htm

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

the emperors new car :: essays research papers

The President's Old Cars Once upon a time in the very country you live in, there was a president who learned a lesson the hard way. See the president loved cars, new cars, fast cars, slow cars, rusted out cars, it didn't matter, if he saw a car he wanted, he bought it. Most other leaders were helping their countries to become stronger, while ours was off buying cars. Then there came that memorable day when our president learned his lesson.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  While out shopping for new cars, the president came across one he didn't have. It was a 1986 Ford Escort. It was all rusty, missing hubcaps, and squeaked as he drove it down the road. But while talking to the car salesman, he never worried about what was wrong with it. The salesman (trying to get rid of this piece of junk) told the president that this car was in great shape and there would probably never be another car like this one. He also told the president that if anyone tried to tell him that this car was loud and smoked that they were just jealous and making it up. The president, happy to hear that someone might be jealous of him bought the car right away with his country's money.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  On his way home people lined the streets to see his new purchase. Many laughed and pointed as his Escort smoked putted along the street. The president remembering what the car salesman had said thought these people were just jealous and pretending that his car was making all the smoke and noise. So he proudly drove around his 4-speed car through the streets ignoring everyone that laughed at him.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Now during the time the president was out buying new cars the American people more money because their jobs weren't paying enough. The president was giving less and less money every time he gave out money, so he would have money to buy a new car. The fact that his people were starting to starve didn't bother him at all.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  A couple of weeks later he was out to buy another car. He went back to the salesman that had sold him the Escort earlier. The president told the salesman that people actually laughed at his previous purchase. Then the salesman and president laughed because they were sure that those people were just jealous and making that stuff up about the car.

Monday, January 13, 2020

He Loved Light, Freedom and Animals and Pneuomconiosis Essay

Both poems are about death and the acceptance of death although are written from different perspectives and are different for the fact that in â€Å"He loved light, freedom and animals† by Mike Jenkins the young boy’s death was quite a shock, but it could have been prevented whereas in â€Å"Pneumoconiosis† written by Duncan Bush the man’s death is inevitable, there is nothing he can do to change it. Both poems also have connection with coalmines. Pneumoconiosis is a disease caught from working down in the mines, and the background of â€Å"He loved light, freedom and animals† is about a mining disaster that happened in Aberfan where a slag heap on the side of a mountain collapsed and engulfed parts of the small town. The first poem I studied was Pneumoconiosis, and as the title suggests, the poem is about the killing lung disease that many coalminers suffered and died from. â€Å"Pneumoconiosis† was renames â€Å"The Dust† by the sufferers because it was mainly caused by inhalation of a lot of dust. The dust would get trapped in the lungs and made breathing difficult, and eventually killed after many years of effecting collier’s lives. Duncan Bush wrote in the form of an old retired coalminer who is slowly dying from the disease. The elderly man is now feeling the effects of the disease more than ever. He shows his feelings towards the disease and reflects to his past. The poor man worked down in the mines for thirty years without realising the fatality of his coughing and breathing difficulties but now he begins to see the truth, he’s now walking at a much slower pace and can not talk as fast and fluent. The constant repetition of the line â€Å"I try not to think about it† gives us the impression that in the back of his mind he cannot help the feeling of ominous foreboding that his life will soon be coming to an end. He is worried about when his death will come but doesn’t want the remainder of his life to be a misery. The opening line, â€Å"This is the Dust† is an introduction to the illness, it simply tells us what the whole poem and the title is about. The second line then describes it as â€Å"Black diamond dust†. It is a good way of describing the dust from the coal, as coal is similar to diamond in many ways. They are both valuable, and a fair amount of coal sparkles, as diamonds do. We understand that the man came from the South Wales valleys; the poet shows this by adding â€Å"boy† at the end of the line and uses informal English to punctuate his accent which symbolizes the location of the industry. It is a personal poem, Darren Bush is writing in the first person as though he is the old man telling his story â€Å"I had thirty years in it†. This is affective because we can relate with his character better by understanding what he is going through and feeling. The man was happy in his work back in the day; he didn’t have the slightest idea that one day working there would lead him to his death. â€Å"A laughing red mouth† He would be covered at work in black dirt, and his mouth would stand out, as it was the only clean part of him. We realize the first symptoms of his illness when he used to â€Å"spit smuts black† but obviously, he was unaware and didn’t realize the cause of his spluttering. The poet uses alliteration to describe the young collier suffering, the hard constant â€Å"s† conveys the way the sound the man made and it stands out. In the second verse, the man continues telling us about the disease he suffers from and points out the fact that he accepts it and he bravely admits he will die with it. The poet cleverly uses the line â€Å"it’s had forty years in me now† which follows the line â€Å"I had thirty years in it†. This shows that he is quite old, because he retired ten years ago. The disease isn’t only affecting his inside; his illness is visible – â€Å"like my blued scars†. The scars are a part of him that won’t go away, he can not erase them. The sufferer tells us how he gets by from day to day and how things have changed since he’s been ill in the third verse. There are a few pauses in the third stanza which conveys the shortness of breath the man has. â€Å"One step at a time; especially the stairs.† It is quite jerky, as I can imagine his breathing and talking would be like. He then goes on to talk about his past and his experiences. His own brother also died of Pneumoconiosis, so he knows what he is facing. He explains that he saw his brothers last moment, which I think is very emotional. Although he seems calm, he must be quite frightened that he will be going through the same thing. He doesn’t want to let the image of his brother that will always be with him scare him. The description the poet uses about the brother’s last moment are very good, and give us a vivid image of how much he struggled – â€Å"worse than a hooked carp drowning in the air†. The last three lines of the poem are very emotional and sad, he emphasises his slow walk and the occasional cough he lets out involuntary by telling people to know him as that man. This shows that the illness has effected him so much, he is different to a lot people when he used to be as healthy as the rest. After reading the poem, I admire the character in the poem because he can handle and accept his death, rather than complain and give up all hope. He is trying to lead his life as normal as possible and trying not to make the last of his life a misery which I respect. Another poem I studied was â€Å"He loved light, freedom and animals†. Mike Jenkins writes as if he is the father and he reminisces and remembers happy memories he shared with his son. He doesn’t believe that his son is dead and in his mind the boy is still as lively as ever. The disaster of Aberfan happened on the 21st of October in 1966. The slagheap was balancing on a mountain overlooking the small village. The flood of waste had slipped and rushed down the mountain shattering homes, farms and the village school, which killed 116 young villagers. Critics say that the disaster should never had happened and young, innocent people’s lives such as the character in the poems son shouldn’t have been lost. The poem contains many good descriptions that create strong images of both the child and the slag heap. This creates a good balance of positive and negative emotion in the poem. The images of the slagheap and the child are a complete contrast to one another; the descriptions of the boy are happy and beautiful foe example â€Å"his eyes gleamed as gorse-flowers do now† whereas the slagheap is described by the use of dark, depressing phrases such as â€Å"tumour on the hillside burst and the black blood coal†. The unpleasant phrase of the tumour growing on the top of the mountain reminds us of illness and gives us the thought people would want to stay as far away from it as possible. But tumours can be detected and defused, like the slagheap, it could have been manually moved but nobody had thought of the consequences until it was too late. The poet refers to the characters son throughout the poem, almost in every stanza which I believe makes the poem very interesting. It also shows that he will always think of his son, and will not give up the happy thoughts. He remembers the things he used to do when he was happiest. His son would be â€Å"in the classroom waving an answer like a greeting†. This emphasises how very enthusiastic and eager the boy was and obviously he was a pupil who enjoyed school, but it was there where he had died. When the poor boy was pulled out, the poet writes that his son must have been â€Å"like a child collier, dragged out of one of Bute’s mines.† A child collier would have been in a very dangerous job, and often lost their lives. They would come out of the mines hurt and covered in black dust but his son wasn’t a collier, he was at school. School is meant to be a safe place, but not for the pupils on the day of the disaster. A good example of a simile in the poem is the one about the son and his mother shown in the last stanza. â€Å"Ears attuned as a ewe’s in lambing.† The connection the boy had with his mother was like no other, his mother can still hear his laugh and like and ewe and a lamb, she was attuned to her son. This is a good way of showing that they were close, and his mother is lost without him. She will always recognize his laugh, and can still hear it clearly in her head. The parents of the boy will always remember him as they last seen him, young, healthy and happy. They will be hearing his â€Å"laughs springing down the slopes† for a long time. Mike Jenkins uses personification in his poem to make it more alive and colourful. An example of him using personification is shown in the fourth verse, he creates a character out of the slagheap when the poet describes it s if it has a â€Å"greedy belly† that ate up all the children and villagers. The tone of the poem is conversational, the father tells us as the reader about his son, and about his son’s death. It’s a dramatic poem, and is very emotional. Both negative and Positive feelings are shown in the poem. Although the theme of the poem is sad, the lines about the boy are happy; they are lines that bring a smile to the reader’s faces. In a way this makes us feel even sorrier for the father and makes it more emotional. The lines about the slag heap are bitter, expressing the father’s feelings towards it. In my opinion, the fact that the poem begins with a line about the grave â€Å"No grave can contain him† and then ends with a line about the grave â€Å"I try to foster the inscription, away from its stubborn stone† is clever. It emphasizes the fact that he is in his grave and will not do the things that were mentioned in the middle of the poem, he will not be â€Å"climbing a tree† again or â€Å"calling out names†. I personally enjoyed reading this poem because I felt I could relate to the father, as it was from a personal point of view and can relate to the loss of someone special. It was very emotional and made me sympathize for the mother and father. It was unfair for the innocent, fragile boy to die in such a horrific accident and it made me angry that people had not thought of the consequences they were facing by putting the slagheap on top of the mountain. Both poems are very successful in creating sad emotions, and also anger and frustration. In He loved Light, Freedom and Animals, anger is created because the boy and his classmates were so young when they died, and they didn’t deserve to have their lives taken away. In Pneumoconiosis, anger is created because the old man had been affected by the dust silently, and is expecting his death. This is very frustrating, as there is nothing we as the reader can do to change what has happened and what is going to happen. In my opinion, He love Light, Freedom, and Animals made the biggest impact to my emotions. As the child was only young, it is easy to relate to, and it makes the reader realize that life can be cut so short, although Pneumoconiosis is also very emotional, as the reader acknowledges the long term effects miners suffer. He has been, and is still fighting bravely but he knows he can’t hold on forever.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Maternal Fetal Attachment Theory Essay - 659 Words

Attachment theory was developed by psychoanalyst John Bowlby in the 1950s to focus on the bond formed between a mother and child; this first relationship is critical in determining a child’s developmental outcome and it is indicative of the child’s future relationships (Brooks, 2013). A parent and child can develop a secure attachment or fall into one of three insecure attachment styles: anxious-avoidant attachments, anxious-resistant attachments, and disorganized/disoriented attachments. Children with secure attachments seem happy and secure around the parent, and become distressed when they leave often seeking out their parents. With anxious-avoidant attachments child finds parent over stimulating thus uninterested when the parent leaves†¦show more content†¦This stage was conducted while the women were between 24-28 weeks pregnant. The newborns intrauterine growth was then measured by calculating the baby’s birth weight to his gestational age. This le d them to receive a rating of 1 (one or more adverse outcomes) or 0 (no adverse outcome). Mothers for the next seven days completed an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) that measures depressive symptoms after pregnancy. To measure the mothers’ attachment style a 40-item questionnaire was completed. Lastly, the Ages and Stages questionnaire was completed; these questionnaires were used to measure the developmental milestones of the children like gross and fine motor skills. Questionnaires were handed out at 1 month of age and ended at 5  ½ years old (Alhusen, Hayat Gross, 2013). The data collected was analyzed using IBM SPSS and SAS. From this Alhusen, Hayat and Gross (2013) hypothesis showed some significance; those mothers reporting lower MFA and higher post partum depressive symptomatology practiced either an avoidant or anxious maternal attachment style. An univariate analyses similarly showed a relation between lower MFA with an early predictor of childhood d evelopmental delays; â€Å"Women reporting increased attachment avoidance, increased attachment anxiety, or post-partum depressiveShow MoreRelatedBonding : Maternal Infant Attachment And The Maternal Role Attainment Theory1707 Words   |  7 Pagesblock of a theory. Concepts are necessary components of a phenomenon, which are used to comprehend and be synthesized into a theory or paradigm. (McEwen, M. Wills, E.M.) According to McEwen Wills concept exploration, concept clarification, and concept analysis are three strategies described by Meleis in 2012. These are used in nursing theory, research and practice to develop conceptual meanings. (McEwen, M. Wills, E.M.) 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HoweverRead MoreThe Importance Of A Substance Abuse Treatment Group Essay1441 Words   |  6 PagesThe purpose of proposing a substance abuse treatment group was to break the barriers that mother-child relationships may face in result to maternal addiction and substance-abuse. Treatment that is geared for maternal addicted mothers can help them recover quickly and protect their infant children from the dangers of drugs and health consequences. The program w ill be gender specific, distinctively for substance-dependent women who are mothers. The group will conduct its work by following through aRead MoreSociocultural Theory in Early Childhood Development Essay849 Words   |  4 Pagesthat development occurs through these interactions.† (Morrison, 2009 sec 14.6) I agree that his theory is the best process for learning. Many people feel that social interaction and learning begin at birth, but there have been research conducted that fetus can learn through parental interaction. According to Fetal memory â€Å"Prenatal memory may be important for the development of attachment and other maternal recognition. There is much evidence that the fetus learns the speech characteristics of its motherRead More Eating Disorders and Pregnancy Essay2138 Words   |  9 Pages Pregnancy has also been suspected as a cause of anorexia nervosa in young mothers. One case study (Benton-Hardy and Lock 1998) had as its subject a 17-year-old femal e who was a symptomatic prior to pregnancy. Most psychological and social theories of anorexia nervosa have focused on the developmental pressures that challenge adolescent girls. Pregnancy, which causes profound physical, emotional, and cognitive changes, could represent an amplification of these developmental pressures. PhysicallyRead MoreHow Does Your Understanding of Attachment Theory and Maternal Deprivation Inform Your Understanding of Nursing/Midwifery Practice?2701 Words   |  11 PagesHow does your understanding of attachment theory and maternal deprivation inform your understanding of nursing/midwifery practice? â€Å"The relationship between mothers and infants is critical for child development. For whatever reason, in some cases, that relationship doesn’t develop normally. Neglect and abuse can result, with devastating effects on a child’s development† (Strathearn, 2008) A psychological perspective of attachment is a term to describe a reciprocal emotional tie that developsRead MoreThe Education Counseling Program At La Verne1172 Words   |  5 Pages Perry, Attachment, and Brain Development Allison V. Alvizuri University of La Verne Before coming into the Educational Counseling program at La Verne, I had taken a few courses in child development and psychology, but never did I think about the trauma that could affect a child’s early development. I assumed that it was easier for a child at a younger age to forget about what they had experienced because they were too young to form an attachment, especially for infants; how could an infantRead MoreThe Mircle of Life- Prenatal Development Essay2135 Words   |  9 Pagescells (Eisenberg, Murkoff, Hathaway, 2002). The fetus is not immune from the outside world. In fact, some things can be damaging to the unborn child. These are called teratogens, and often result in birth defects. They include such things as maternal disease, poor nutrition, stress, pollutants, and cigarette smoking. Some of the most troubling teratogens are alcohol and drugs. It is critical to the development of the fetus that expectant mothers avoid teratogens, and receive good prenatal care

Saturday, December 28, 2019

Edgar Allan Poes Philosophy of Death

Ralph Waldo Emerson once wrote: Talent alone cannot make the writer. There must be a man behind the book. There was a man behind The Cask of Amontillado, The Fall of the House of Usher, The Black Cat, and poems like Annabel Lee, A Dream Within a Dream, and  The Raven. That man—Edgar Allan Poe—was talented, but he was also eccentric and prone to alcoholism—having experienced more than his share of tragedies. But, what stands out even more prominently than the tragedy of Edgar Allan Poes life is his philosophy of death. Early Life Orphaned at the age of two,  Edgar Allan Poe was taken in by John Allan. Although Poes foster father educated him and provided for him, Allan eventually disinherited him. Poe was left penniless, earning a meager living by writing reviews, stories, literary criticism, and poetry. All of his writing and his editorial work was not enough to bring him and his family above the level of mere subsistence, and his drinking made it difficult for him to hold a job. Inspiration for Horror Arising from such a stark background, Poe has become a classical phenomenon, known for the gothic horror  he created in The Fall of the House of Usher and other works. Who can forget The Tell-Tale Heart and The Cask of Amontillado? Every Halloween those stories come to haunt us. On the darkest night, when we sit around the campfire and tell horrible tales, Poes stories of horror, grotesque death, and madness are told again. Why did he write about such horrible events? About the calculated and murderous entombment of Fortunato, as he writes, A succession of loud and shrill screams, bursting suddenly from the throat of the chained form, seemed to thrust me violently back. For a brief moment—I trembled. Was it disillusionment with life that drove him to these grotesque scenes? Or was it some acceptance that death was inevitable and horrible, that it sneaks up like a thief in the night, leaving madness and tragedy in its wake? Or, is it something more to do with the last lines of The Premature Burial? There are moments when, even to the sober eye of Reason, the world of our sad Humanity may assume the semblance of a Hell... Alas! The grim legion of sepulchral terrors cannot be regarded as altogether fanciful... they must sleep, or they will devour us—they must be suffered to slumber, or we perish. Perhaps death offered some answer for Poe. Perhaps escape. Perhaps only more questions—about why he still lived, why his life was so hard, why his genius was so little recognized. He died as he had lived: a tragic, pointless death. Found in the gutter, apparently the victim of an election gang who used alcoholics to vote for their candidate. Taken to a hospital, Poe died four days later and was buried in a Baltimore cemetery next to his wife. If he was not well-loved in his time (or at least not as well-appreciated as he might have been), his tales at least have taken on a life of their own. Hes recognized as the founder of the detective story (for works like The Purloined Letter, the best of his detective stories). He has influenced culture and literature; and his figure is placed beside the literary greats in history for his poetry, literary criticism, stories, and other works. His view of death may have been filled with darkness, foreboding, and disillusionment. But, his works have lasted beyond the horror to become classics.